The use of genetic potential of modern varieties of cereal ear crops is the “alpha”, which begins the work on increasing the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of yield.
2023 :Utilizing the genetic potential of modern varieties of cereal ear crops is the “alpha” that starts the work on improving the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the harvest. Of course, every link in the production chain is important: agrotechnics, mineral fertilizers, plant protection system and balanced leaf nutrition. But the starting point of high achievements, as before, remains advanced breeding and seed production.
Focus on breeding and seed production
Knowing this, Shchelkovo Agrochem is strengthening its presence in the breeding and seed production sectors. Among other things, the company’s increased interest is related to the promotion of high-yielding and adaptive winter wheat varieties.
As part of this work, the company cooperates with the largest scientific institutions of our country: among them – FGBNU “Federal Research Center “Nemchinovka” and FGBNU “Federal Scientific Center for Grain Legumes and Cereals”.
Active seed production work is carried out in the subsidiary of “Shchelkovo Agrochem” – Oryol LLC “Dubovitskoe”. The enterprise thoroughly approaches the selection and implementation of varietal strategy for its own production, as well as for farms in Central Russia, which are customers of “Dubovitskoye” in terms of purchasing seed. Among other things, here are engaged in seed production of varieties of Moscow, Krasnodar, Oryol breeding.
In addition, every year in the Orel region and other regions of the country, research is conducted to identify not only the most promising varieties, but also to refine the technology of their cultivation.
This year, Dubovitsky conducted experiments on 17 varieties at the so-called intensity polygon. Another series of experiments to identify adaptive properties and ecological plasticity of the same varieties were laid in different ecological points of Russia and Azerbaijan. This is a large-scale work on the basis of which agrarians can form their own effective and profitable variety systems.
Variety conveyor belt as a success factor
The potential of modern winter wheat varieties is very high – both in terms of quantitative and qualitative indicators. But it is not advisable to rely on a single variety – even if it is the best! – variety is categorically not recommended. Moreover, each farm should form its own system consisting of winter wheat varieties that differ both in maturity rate and in the degree of their technological responsiveness to intensification factors. This approach to work allows farmers to get consistently high and high-quality yields from season to season – even in situations when weather conditions are not in favor of growers.
In addition, the variety conveyor helps to adequately distribute the load on grain harvesting equipment, harvest on time and maintain high quality indicators.
According to Alexander Pryanishnikov, head of the department of breeding and seed production of agricultural crops at Shchelkovo Agrochem, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, breeder of winter wheat, the system should combine adaptive and intensive varieties in optimal ratios of 50/50 or 60/40 for the reliability of the production process and results. This helps farms to steadily reach and gradually master the yield level of 60, 70 c/ha and more.
Intensive, Adaptive and Intermediate
In order not to overload you with figures, let us dwell on the facts that will be a clue for the formation of the variety line. These conclusions were shared with us by Alexander Pryanishnikov.
So, winter wheat varieties studied by “Shchelkovo Agrochem” can be divided into two groups: highly adapted and high-tech intensive. The group of highly adapted varieties included Moskovskaya 39, Moskovskaya 40, Moskovskaya 56, Sceptre, Korochanka, as well as a new variety DF and early maturing form of academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences B.I. Sandukhadze Erythrospermum 2340. The group of high-tech and intensive varieties were Sineva, Stork, Nemchinovskaya 85, Snigurka, Leonida and Astarta. Intermediate position at the end of this year among the studied varieties took Grom, Izumrud Dubovitska and line B.I. Sandukhadze L 982.
And now – a few words about the brightest representatives of these groups.
Moskovskaya 39, Moskovskaya 40 and Moskovskaya 56
It is not by chance that we have combined these unique varieties into one group, which is characterized by high stability in the manifestation of productive properties throughout the entire system of multilocation trials of JSC “Shchelkovo Agrochem”. Mid-maturing varieties Moskovskaya 39, Moskovskaya 40 and Moskovskaya 56 were created at the Moscow Research and Development Center “Nemchinovka” under the guidance of Academician Bagrat Sandukhadze. These varieties are in demand in modern production, distinguished by a high level of balance of adaptive properties and qualitative characteristics of the formed yield, which contributes to their wide geographical distribution – up to the Far East. All varieties belong to the strong grain quality. Demonstrating high ecological plasticity, the varieties represent an important element of an effective varietal strategy for those farms that are not able to provide high-tech winter wheat growing schemes. The varieties are able to sustainably form a yield of 60 c/ha at a relatively restrained level of supplementary mineral nutrition, while due to their genetic nature in the conditions of the Non-Black Earth region form grain with an increased protein content in the grain up to 16% and more. In addition, for Moscow 56, a distinctive feature is the increased level of winter hardiness, which allows agricultural enterprises to feel more confident in harsh wintering years.
A new variety of winter wheat developed by Bagrat Sandukhadze, a distinguished academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, demonstrates a yield potential of over 100 c/ha. Stress-resistant, with a relatively short, lodging-resistant stem, forming large grain – all this is about the variety Nemchinovskaya 85. This year, the yield of the novelty in different natural-climatic conditions ranged from 31.9 c/ha for the conditions of dry summer in the Volga region (Samara region) to 94.5 c/ha at the intensity test site in LLC “Dubovitskoe” (Orel region), with an average yield of 64.9 c/ha for all five test points.
Nemchinovskaya 85 is part of a pleiad of varietal “family” of Moscow breeding. And it is perfectly adapted to the soil and climatic conditions of the central regions of Russia. Taking into account all these facts, we can predict that Nemchinovskaya 85 will become one of the demanded varieties, thanks to which Russian agrarians will be able to get high and high-quality yields.
A bright representative of the Krasnodar breeding school, which was created under the leadership of academician Lyudmila Andreevna Bespalova. Its unique capabilities with wide ecological adaptability to different growing conditions are known to many agricultural enterprises not only in the South of Russia, but also in the Central Non-Black Earth Zone. In the variety breeders harmonized high productivity potential with qualitative criteria of grain, immunity and resistance to lodging. All this has become a hallmark of the variety and was clearly manifested in the current year not only in LLC “Dubovitskoe” on the test site of intensity, where one of the highest yield results among the tested varieties – 93.1 c/ha, but also in the harshest drought conditions of the Samara Volga region – where the variety showed a yield of 36.5 c/ha, not yielding in this respect highly adaptive varieties and forms of Volga breeding. Thereby demonstrating its high adaptive properties. And as a whole on the system of ecological study showed the yield at the level of 66.0 c/ha, surpassing the widely known among agricultural enterprises standard Skipitr.
Leonida is a representative of Oryol breeding, belonging to intensive varieties. It is characterized by high plasticity, stable yield in combination with frost and winter hardiness, drought resistance, resistance to lodging and grain shattering during overstorage. Resistance to diseases at the level and above the standard, which is Moscow 39.
As for the qualitative indicators of grain, we are dealing with a strong variety. The content of crude protein in it is 13,7-15,7 %, crude gluten – 24-30 %, IDK 73-79.
But it should be remembered that the high intensity of this variety makes it dependent on mineral nutrition. In particular, Leonida needs early spring nutrition, as well as fertilizer application on poor soils at sowing.
The maximum yield in the State trial was in Kursk region – 110.2 c/ha, and in Stavropol region – 100.1 c/ha. And in our broad ecological trial in the 2018/19 season, the average was 66.3 c/ha.
Sineva, one of the new representatives of the State Register of Breeding Achievements, demonstrates the highest responsiveness to the application of intensive technologies (this year the variety received a Russian patent). Among its key advantages are genetic resistance to pathogens of most leaf diseases, high yield potential together with excellent grain quality.
The maximum yield of Sineva in production crops of “Dubovitsky” was 95.0 c/ha. This is the indicator of 2017, but in the current season Sineva did not fail: its yield in production was higher than that of many other varieties studied, and in some fields showed 80 and more c/ha. On the most favorable predecessors – soybean and peas – this indicator on average for the farm was 68.1 and 69.3 c/ha. The crops placed on buckwheat and fallow predecessor performed well: 61.6 and 61.3 c/ha. As for the average figure for all variants, Sineva gave 62.8 c/ha. An impressive figure, which confirms that we are dealing with a real leader!
But this is not all. Compared to many varieties, Sineva demonstrated impressive resistance to lodging. At a time when less intensive high-growth wheat varieties were “lying down”, Sineva held firm – and this had a positive effect on the harvest results.
Technology first and foremost
It should be understood that the realization of the potential of high-intensity varieties – such as Sineva, Leonida, Nemchinovskaya 85 and others – is directly related to the technology of their cultivation and mineral background. According to Alexander Pryanishnikov, such varieties require a high level of mineral nutrition, which includes an early spring application of ammonium nitrate followed by the application of UAN or urea during the growing season. In addition, the “diet” of plant nutrition should be harmonized with the help of preparations Biocomposite-Correct, Ultramag and Biostim, which allows to compensate the plants for the deficiency of trace elements and more effectively use the applied doses of mineral nutrition.
As for the less intensive varieties, they can be provided with a more restrained regime of mineral nutrition to prevent the subsequent lodging of the crop, and the return on additional mineral nutrition they are somewhat lower than in high-intensive varieties. For this purpose, a single application of ammonium nitrate in early spring, when the plants come out of wintering (150-180 kg / ha). In addition, the nutrition system should still provide for fertilization with nitrogen and sulfur (magnesium sulfate) on the ear: this technique allows you to raise the quality of grain. The use of biopreparation Biocomposite-Correct, Ultramag and Biostim series preparations during vegetation will allow less intensive varieties to compensate and balance nutrition.чч
In addition, in order to achieve the highest results it is necessary to choose the “right” precursors that allow winter wheat to realize its potential to the maximum. As the results of experiments have shown, all preceding crops can be conditionally divided into three groups. The first one includes the most favorable leguminous predecessors – soybean and peas, enriching the soil with nitrogen. To the second – steam, buckwheat and some others. To the third – cereals (spring wheat, oats) and annual grasses. One should be prepared for the fact that placing winter wheat after crops from the third group does not allow varieties to form a large yield and here it is necessary to use more tolerant varieties of semi-intensive type.
System in development
Modern breeding achievements are impressive! But in order to meet the growing needs of the market, it is necessary to be ahead of the curve and create the future with our own hands today.
This year, LLC “OPH Orlovskoye” started work on the formation of a system of varieties of a new generation. Thanks to this activity, by 2025 the company “Shchelkovo Agrochem” plans to switch to their industrial use. In the work of JSC “Shchelkovo Agrochem” involved FIC “Nemchinovka”, breeding and seed production company “Active Agro”, FSC Grain legume crops. And the basis of the new varietal strategy as before determines the breeding material of the outstanding breeder academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Bagrat Sandukhadze and Nemchinovskaya 85 – the first violin in this endeavor.
Of course, this project is aimed at the future. In the meantime, let’s return to the present day! Agrarians are already making decisions on forming a variety strategy for the new agricultural season. In order to maximize the efficiency of the work done, we offer winter wheat varieties that are diverse in their characteristics and meet the strict requirements of agricultural production. As a result, from the available assortment each farm will be able to form a set that fits perfectly into its natural-climatic, soil, phytosanitary and economic conditions.