Rye is one of the most important food crops in Russia, it is used for livestock fodder and human food (rye is used to produce flour, starch, malt). Our country ranks first in the world in rye harvesting. The main areas of cultivation of this crop are the Volga District (Republic of Tatarstan, Samara and Ulyanovsk regions), the Ural District (Republic of Udmurtia and Perm region), as well as the Central and Volga-Vyatka districts.
Rye is less demanding to natural conditions than wheat, resistant to many types of pests and pathogens. Although sown rye has 39 varieties, only common rye is grown in our country. Winter rye easily tolerates low temperatures down to -35 degrees Celsius, so on the territory of Russia the winter crop is more widespread than the spring crop, which is cultivated in some areas of Buryatia and Yakutia. We will look at various aspects of the business of growing winter rye.
The cost of leasing agricultural land in different regions of Russia varies considerably. The price per hectare depends on the total area of the leased land, the proximity of the road, the presence or absence of communications, water, special equipment, and can be as little as 500 roubles or as much as several thousand roubles.
As we have already said, rye can easily grow on the soil that is not suitable for wheat cultivation. The best predecessors of rye are lupine-oatmeal mixtures, perennial grasses, early maturing potatoes, corn for silage, flax, pea wheat. Rye can yield for two years in one place. It is not recommended to plant rye after perennial legumes, because of them the soil is saturated with nitrogen, which is detrimental to rye.
The land is plowed 3-4 weeks before sowing. If rye is planned to be sown after wheat, a plow with skimmers is used; after potatoes, flax, peas the land is cultivated with flat-cutters; after perennial grasses and corn the field is cultivated with disk harrows. The average cost of plowing a hectare of land is 700-1000 rubles.
Seeds of winter rye can be purchased over the Internet at a price of about 10 rubles per kilogram. A big mistake of modern agronomists is sowing with freshly harvested seeds. Undried seed is not yet ready for germination, so the rye harvest is reduced to 10 centners per hectare, although it can be more several times.
Let’s consider popular varieties of rye. The variety “Tatarskaya 1” belongs to the medium-ripening, resistant to lodging and frost, has good baking qualities, cultivated on poor, low fertile soils. Medium-ripening variety “Saratovskaya 7” is characterized by high yield, drought resistance and good technological and baking properties of grain, best grows in the Volga region. Variety “Bezenchuk 87” also belongs to the medium-ripening, resistant to lodging, has excellent baking qualities, included in the state register for the Central, Volga-Vyatka, Central Black Earth, Middle Volga, Ural regions. Variety “Novozybkovskaya M-4” frost-resistant, gives a high yield, grows well on sandy soils, but lodges at excessive moisture. The variety “Pullmana yellow-grain” is designed for cultivation in the Kursk region, the percentage of lodging and shattering is much lower than that of other varieties.
Before sowing, seeds should be prepared to prevent infection by stem bunt and snow mold. Fundazol and TMTD are used for this purpose. Sowing dates of wheat in the non-black earth strip – August 5-25, in the central black earth strip and southeastern regions – August 15-September 1, in southern regions – September 25-October 10.
Seeding rates of rye per hectare are as follows: in the Central Black Earth zone – 5-6 million seeds, in the Non-Black Earth zone – 6-7 million seeds, in the Volga region – 4-6 million seeds, in the Urals and Siberia – 6-7 million seeds. 1000 seeds weigh 30-40 grams depending on the variety. Consequently, it takes 150 to 280 kilograms of seeds per hectare.
There are several ways of sowing rye: conventional, on occupied pairs, crossed, narrow-charge. If you sow rye on occupied pairs, then the seeding rate is increased by 15-20 percent, and if you apply narrow- or cross-charge methods, then the rate should be increased by 10-15 percent.
Immediately after sowing, it is recommended to roll the crop to ensure better wintering. Harrow the crops in early spring. Fundazol is used against root rot, herbicides are used against weeds, although rye is resistant to weeds, and weed treatment is not often required. 10-12 days after sprouting, the crops are sprayed with a solution of camaposan M to prevent lodging.
Harvesting of rye begins in the middle of the wax ripeness of the grain, when the grain is still firmly held on the ear and not shattered, because at the end of wax ripeness stops the flow of dry matter in the grain, and at full maturity will not be able to avoid significant losses, because the grain is prone to shattering.
Harvesting is carried out in a separate method. First a windrower is used, and then a combine harvester. The harvested grain is cleaned, sorted, and dried if necessary. The cost of a mounted windrower starts from 25 thousand rubles. A grain harvester can be bought for 450 thousand rubles, the cost of a new modern combine harvester is more than 2 million rubles. A Finnish mobile grain dryer costs about 2.5 million rubles.
The average cost of rye cultivation on one hectare of land – from 5000 rubles. The average yield of rye – 20 centners per hectare, with good agrotechnics can increase to 50 centners. When selling grain at a price of 5000 rubles per ton, the net profit will be about 5000 rubles per hectare.
Rye is a part of various mixed fodders, its nutrient content is not inferior to wheat, so one of the options for marketing rye is animal feed producers. When growing varieties with high baking properties, it is advisable to cooperate with companies producing rye flour. In addition, rye is used as an organic fertilizer on farms.