Cultural wheat is divided into two varieties – soft and hard. They have botanical differences, which is associated with the growing conditions. The flour
produced from these varieties also has different characteristics.
Wheat is an annual plant with erect stems with nodes and internodes. Both hard and soft wheat have a meticulous root system,
the inflorescence is a compound spikelet with the awns arranged in parallel.
The leaves are bright green, lanceolate, up to 20 mm wide. The arrangement on the stem is regular, double-rowed. The fruit is a granule. The grain itself of durum
wheat grain itself is vitreous, compressed from the sides, has pronounced ribs. The colour is yellowish, yellow with a red cast or brown.
Features of the hard variety and its difference from the soft variety
Of these two types of culture, hard wheat is considered the most valuable and useful. The grain contains a large amount of gluten, the aleurone layer contains a variety of vitamins and vitamins.
layer contains a variety of vitamins and minerals:
- vitamin K;
- vitamin PP;
- B vitamins;
- vitamin A;
- vitamin E;
Durum wheat grows in regions with continental climates with dry, hot summers.
Differences between soft and hard wheat:
Soft varieties prefer regions with regular rainfall, while hard varieties like dry air and hot summers. These conditions produce more gluten
the stalk of a hard variety plant is filled with soft parenchyma, while the stalk of a soft variety is hollow;
durum wheat flour has a lot of gluten and the starch particles are hard and small. To make a dough from this flour, it will require a large
of water. Hard wheat is used to make pasta and cereals. Soft wheat doesn’t have as much gluten as hard wheat,
as hard wheat. The starch grains in the endosperm are larger and softer. Not much water is needed for kneading. The dough turns out tender and fluffy;
The grain of durum wheat varieties practically does not crumble, plants are less likely to get sick and are resistant to insect pests. Yields are 2-4 kg/ha less than for soft varieties.
ha less than that of soft varieties.
The grain of durum wheat has high quality gluten and vitreous endosperm (70 to 90%). When the grain is milled, the starch,
which is in crystalline form, is not destroyed. Protein content in grains is from 13 to 23%.
Peculiarities of agrotechnics
One of the main conditions for obtaining a decent yield of wheat is the observance of crop rotation. Winter varieties are more often sown on black fallow (the field is completely cleared of weeds and the soil is loose and moist).
completely clear of weeds, and the soil is loose and moist). Cultivation after sunflower, sudanka or maize is not recommended, as the nutrient removal of these crops is very high.
these crops have high nutrient removal. After them, soils are impoverished and wheat lacks nutrition elements.
Spring varieties do well when sown after row crops and leguminous crops. However, in regions with arid climates, spring wheat should be sown
should be sown on black fallow.
Hard varieties are sown exclusively on black fallow. And in no case cultivate it two years in a row on the same plot. When sown after
other cereal crops, the quality of grain drops significantly. The soil should rest before sowing durum wheat.
In the year when the fields remain under black fallow, the soil is treated with herbicides against weeds or removed mechanically. Such measures favour
the accumulation and conservation of moisture. Snow retention works are carried out before winter.
To ensure optimum growing conditions for durum wheat it is necessary to:
Maximum accumulation of moisture in the substrate. If its content in the top layer of soil (20 cm) is less than 20 mm, sowing is cancelled;
in fields after leguminous crops or on fallow fields, ploughing should be carried out;
before sowing and during cultivation, tillage is carried out to the sowing depth (6 cm);
if rain has fallen before sowing, cultivation is repeated.
Seeds of hard winter wheat are sown to a depth of 4-6 cm. When sowing spring wheat, the soil condition is taken into account. The crop is sown in rows at intervals of 15 cm.
Soft wheat remains strategically important for Russia, but hard varieties produce more useful flour. However, they need a drier climate, so this type of wheat grows poorly in most regions of the country.
species does not grow well in most regions of the country